Fairy Chimneys

Cappadocia was formed as of geological developments of Taurus Mountain around 60 millions years ago. While Taurus Mountain chain was being shaped, some big cracks occured on the earth crust. And magma found  it’s way through these cracks and it started to erupt. That is how the volcanic mountains formed in Anatolia. And it is estimated that there was a big inland sea or inland lake in Cappadocia. There are three big volcanic mountains in Cappadocia. These are Mount Erciyes  (3916m ) in Kayseri, Mt Hasan ( 3253m ) between Aksaray and Niğde, Mt Göllüdağ ( 2143m ) in Niğde,  First eruptions of these volcanic mountains started millions years ago. First of all they spurted lapilli gas and ash. And all these meterials spreaded over the area and covered all the hollows. In different time and with different temperatures lots of eruptions occured. And beside the lava, there were other substances like ingnimbrite, clay, ash andesite, marn and lahar covered the region. After the last eruption severe cold period effected the whole area. In this period because of dramatic changes of temperatures, big fractures occured over plateau. And during the Pluvial Age heavy rains effected the area. Water found it’s way through the valley and made deep gulley. And washed away all the soft meterials from huge rocks and carried them to the old banks of Red River ( 1355km ) which is the longest river of Turkey. And than the external forces ( wind, rains) started and gave the last shape to these rock formations. We call them as fairy chimneys. The harsh winds gave horizantal shape and rain gave vertical shape to the rock. Katpatuka was the old name of the area was given by Persians which means Land of the Beautiful Horses. But there are some other theories about the meaning.