Cappadocia with it’s deep valleys
and fairy chimneys surrounded by mountain ridges was originally formed by
massive volcanic eruptions that covered the area in a thick ash. That ash then
solidified into a soft rock called tuff which was then eroded by wind and water
for centuries leaving behind the interesting rock formations that we see today.
In the 4th century it is believed that small anchorite communities saw the
honeycombed rock formations and determined to begin inhabiting them be it for
protection from the elements or from warring neighbors. In the present day they
are the most striking and largest cave-dwelling complexes in the world.